Hello, fellows, I hope all of you are having fun in your life. In today’s tutorial, we will discuss the Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors. Semiconductor substances are such material which has conductivity properties among conductors and insulators. Their conductance is restricted due to the least number of free electrons and holes in the valence band. A pure semiconductor material is mixed or doped with other materials to create free electrons and holes for conduction.
The addition of another material to the semiconductor is called doping and the material created is known as a doped substance. There are two types of elements are created after the addition of external atoms first one is N-type and the second one is P-type. In today’s post, we will have a look at these semiconductors materials in the detail and compare their properties and features. So let’s get started with the Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors.
Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors
- For the increment in conductive electrons elements from group five of the periodic tables are doped with pure material semiconductors like antimony, phosphorus, arsenic, etc.
- All these groups five elements have five electrons in their valence shell.
- In given Figures, you can see that the 4 electrons of group five-element are making a covalent bond with the four nearing atoms of silicon and one electron of antimony that is pentavalent is release free.
- The fifth electrons move free in the structure and current flow due to this electron. Due to releasing of an electron pentavalent atom is called a donor atom.
- The number of free electrons can be varied by changing the doping material. These free electrons also do not make a hole in the material since these electrons are freed from the pentavalent impurity that is the extra electron.
.Majority and Minority Carriers in N-Type
- As mostly charge carriers in n types are electrons as free electrons are created with the addition of a pentavalent impurity atom.
- With the electrons there are some holes also created due to the creation of electron-hole pair, these holes are minority carriers in N-type materials and electrons are majority charge carriers.
- If semiconductors are doped with the elements of group three of the periodic table then P types of semiconductors are formed.
- The elements of group three are boron, gallium, indium, etc.
- If we doped silicon with the trivalent impurity then three electrons of impurity make a covalent bond with the three electrons of silicons and the hole is generated due to one remaining electron.
- In the given figure, the impurity atom is boron that P-type material with the silicon atom.
- In P-type substances, the number of holes can be varied by varying the trivalent impurity amount.
Majority and Minority Carriers in P-Type
- As with the addition of a trivalent impurity, holes are created so the majority of carriers in P types semiconductors are holes and free electrons are also exiting due to the thermally creation of electron-hole pairs.
- The important thing to keep in mind is that these electrons are not created due to the addition of trivalent.
N-Types Vs P-Types Semiconductors
|When a member of group three is added as an impurity substance in a semiconductor then P-type material is formed.||When an element of group five of the periodic table is doped with the semiconductor then the N-type semiconductor is formed.|
|Impurity in this material has the ability to take an electron so it called an acceptor atom.||In these materials, impurity provides electrons to so this atom is known as the donor atom.|
|Impurities added in these substances are aluminum, gallium, etc.||These materials have impurities like phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, etc.|
|In P types substance holes are the majority carriers.||In N-type materials, electrons are the majority carriers while holes are the minority.|
|In these materials density of hole is larger than the electrons.||These substances have a larger density of electrons as comparing the holes.|
|The energy level of impurity is close to the valence band and distant from the conduction band.||In these substances, impurity or donor atoms have energy levels near to the valence band and distant from the conduction band.|
|The Fermi level of these semiconductors is among the impurity energy level and valence band.||These materials have Fermi levels among the impurity energy level and conduction band.|
|In these substances, the majority of carriers move from high to low potential.||The majority carrier moves from less to high potential.|
So, friends, that is the detailed post on the difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. I tried my level best to make this post simpler and easy for you to understand. If you still have any query ask in the comments. Thanks for reading. In the next article, I want to shift our focus to another exciting field: aerospace engineering. Have you ever wondered why aerospace engineering is important? Aerospace engineering plays a crucial role in our society, making significant contributions to various aspects such as air travel, space exploration, and national defense. Its significance lies in the fact that it empowers us to venture beyond our planet, enhance connectivity and communication, and uphold national security.”