Hello, fellows, I hope all of you are having fun in your life. In today’s tutorial, we will discuss the Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors. Semiconductor substances are such material which has conductivity properties among conductors and insulators. Their conductance is restricted due to the least number of free electrons and holes in the valence band. A pure semiconductor material is mixed or doped with other materials to create free electrons and holes for conduction.
The addition of another material with the semiconductor is called doping and material created known as doped substance. There are two types of elements are created after the addition of external atoms first one is N-type and the second one is P-type. In tody’s post, we will have a look at these semiconductors materials with the detailed and compare their properties and features. So let’s get started with the Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors.
Difference between N and P-Type Semiconductors
- For the increment in conductive electrons elements from group five of the periodic tables are doped with pure material semiconductors like antimony, phosphorus, arsenic, etc.
- All these groups five elements have five electrons in their valence shell.
- In given Figures, you can see that the 4 electrons of group five-element are making a covalent bond with the four nearing atoms of silicon and one electron of antimony that is pentavalent is release free.
- The fifth electrons move free in the structure and current flow due to this electron. Due to releasing of electron pentavalent atom is called a donor atom.
- The number of free electrons can be varied by changing the doping material. These free electrons also not make a hole in material since these electrons freed from the pentavalent impurity that is the extra electron.
.Majority and Minority Carriers in N-Type
- As mostly charge carriers in n types are electrons as free electrons are created with the addition of pentavalent impurity atom.
- With the electrons there are some holes also created due to the creation of electron-hole pair, these holes are minority carriers in N-type materials and electrons are majority charge carriers.
- If semiconductors are doped with the elements of group three of the periodic table then P types semiconductors are formed.
- The elements of group three are boron, gallium, indium, etc.
- If we doped silicon with the trivalent impurity then three electrons of impurity make a covalent bond with the three electrons of silicons and the hole is generated due to one remaining electron.
- In the given figure, the impurity atom is boron that P-type material with the silicon atom.
- In P-type substance, the number of holes can be varied by varying the trivalent impurity amount.
Majority and Minority Carriers in P-Type
- As with the addition of a trivalent impurity, holes are created so majority carriers in P types semiconductors are holes and free electrons are also exiting due to thermally creation of electron-hole pairs.
- The important thing to keep in mind that these electrons are not created due to the addition of trivalent.
N-Types Vs P-Types Semiconductors
|When a member of group three is added as impurity substance in semiconductor then P-type material is formed.||When an element of group five of the periodic table is doped with the semiconductor then the N-type semiconductor is formed.|
|Impurity in this material has the ability to take an electron so it called acceptor atom.||In these materials, impurity provides electrons to so this atom is known as donor atom.|
|Impurities added in these substances are aluminum, gallium, etc.||These materials have impurity like phosphorus, antimony, bismuth, etc.|
|In P types substance holes are majority carriers.||In N-type materials, electrons are majority carriers while holes are a minority.|
|In these materials density of hole is larger than the electrons.||These substances have a larger density of electron as comparing the holes.|
|The energy level of impurity is close to the valence band and distant from the conduction band.||In these substances, impurity or donor atom have energy level near to the valence band and distant from the conduction band.|
|Fermi level of these semiconductors is among the impurity energy level and valence band.||These materials have Fermi levels among the impurity energy level and conduction band.|
|In these substances, majority carriers move from high to low potential.||The majority carrier moves from less to high potential.|
So friends that is the detailed post on the difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. I tried my level best to make this post simpler and easy for you. If you still have any query ask in comments. Thank for reading. See you in the next tutorial.