Hi, readers welcome to the new post. In this post we will have a detailed look at Pi-pad Attenuators are usually used in wireless frequency and transmission lines of the microwave, and it can also be used in balance or unbalance enterprises. The Pi-pad attenuator is so named since its elementary arrangement and enterprise look like that of the Greek letter ( π ), which means that it has one series resistance and two shunts (parallel) resistances which are coupled to ground at the input and the output.
The Pi-pad attenuator is a completely regular chastely resistance system that can be used as a static attenuator among equivalent impedance or for impedance comparison among inadequate impedances.
Introduction to Pi-pad Attenuator Circuit
- The Π pad is a definite category of attenuator in an electronic circuit whereby the topology of the circuit is similar to the letter “Π”.
- Attenuators are used in different electronics circuits to decrease the level of power.
- They are also denoted as pad due to their outcome of padding depressed a signal by similarity with audibility.
- Attenuators have a smooth frequency reply attenuating all frequencies similarly in the group they are envisioned to work.
- The attenuator does the contrary job of an amplifier. The topology of an attenuator circuit will typically track one of the basic units.
- Though, there is no prerequisite for the extra multifaceted circuits, as for the filters, due to the ease of the frequency retort vital.
- Circuits are obligatory to be balanced or unbalance dependent on the configuration of the transmission lines.
- For wireless(radio) frequent submissions, the arrangement is frequently unbalanced, such as coaxis arrangments.
- For auditory and communications, balance circuits are typically essential, like as with the spiral pair arrangement.
- The pi pad is basically an unbalance circuitry. Though, it can be transformed to a balance circuitry by introducing partial the series resistive elements in the coming back trail.
- Such circuitry is named a container unit since the circuit is designed in the form of a box.
Pi-pad Attenuator having Equivalent value of Impedances
- We have studied earlier, that the pi-pad attenuator is a regular attenuator enterprise containing only of passive resistance assembly it rectilinear in its enterprise permitting for its input and output termini to be moved with one other.
- This brands the pi-pad attenuator perfect for supplement among two equivalent impedances ( ZS = ZL ) to decrease signal levels.
- In this circumstance, the three resistors are selected to confirm that the input and output impedance compare the load(output) impedance which procedures portion of the attenuator system.
Pi-pad Attenuator having Unequal value of Impedances
- As well as by means of the Pi-pad attenuator to reduce signal levels in a circuit that has equal impedances, ( ZS= ZL ), we can also use this category of an attenuator for impedance matching of unequal source and load impedances Zs is not equal to ZL.
What is Balanced-Pi Attenuator
- The balance-Pi attenuator ”, comprises an extra resistor in the mutual ground line to procedure a balance resistances system as shown in the given diagram.
- The balanced-Pi attenuator is also named an O-pad attenuator since the design of its resistance procedure the form of a letter “O” and henceforth called as, “O-pad attenuators”.
- The resistances values of the balanced-Pi circuitry are originally intended as an unbalance π-pad outline linked among equivalent impedances similar to earlier, but now the value of the series resistance (R2) is halved.
- The intended resistance value of the two parallel (shunt) resistive elements persists at the similar.
Features of Pi Pad Attenuator
- Pi-pad Attenuators are one of the utmost usually used regular attenuator circuitry and as its enterprise is cast-off in numerous commercial accessible attenuator pads.
- Whereas the π-pad attenuator can attain a very higher level of attenuation in one solitary phase, it is well to shape a higher damage attenuator over thirty (30decibels) by dropping together numerous discrete π-pad units so that the last level of attenuation is attained in phases.
- By dropping together π-pad attenuators, the number of resistors vital in the enterprise can be abridged as contiguous resistances can be joined together.
- it means that the two contiguous parallel (shunt) resistance can be added with each other.
- The correctness of the intendedπattenuator will resolute by the correctness of the resistors used.
- Either tolerance of resistance is designated to paradigm a π attenuator circuitry, one percent, five percent, or even ten percent they MUST all be non-inductive resistances and not wire coiled kinds
Applications Pi-Pad Attenuators
- RF attenuators are typically made of a system of resistances, shaped by engraving dashes on a PCB (printed circuit board).
- These passive circuitries are used to deteriorate the power signal from a source to a level appropriate for the receiving end.
- Weakening a signal is done not solitary to evade harm to the receiver circuitry but also to compare the impedance between the supply source and the terminus..
- The π attenuator is one of the mutual passive attenuators cast-off in RF submissions.
- The benefit of this system over other topologies is its modest structure.
- It is calmer to scratch out a π system on a tinny film circuitry likened to engraving a balance or bridged-t attenuator circuitry.
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