Hello, readers welcome to the new post. In this post, we will have a detailed look at Introduction to Mobile Network or Cellular Network. This system is consists of a wireless communication system. This system of communications is divided in different parts according to area locations each part is known as a cell and this cell consists of a certain transceiver that covert particular area. In certain areas, there is 3 cell or base transceivers are installed.
Through this transceiver, there is coverage of data sound, and another material transmission occurs in that cell. There is a certain type of frequency is allocated to this cell that is different from the adjacent cell so interference is avoidance. In this post, we cover different parameters related to this system. So let get started with Introduction to Mobile Network.
Introduction to Mobile Network
- Before a complete discussion about the mobile network, we discussed some terms used in this network.
- Its full form is a global system for mobile communications that through this system mobile phones are linked to it to finds the certain area.
- This system uses 4 different frequencies to operate. normally it runs at the nine megahertz or eighteen megahertz bands of frequency.
- In the USA and Canada, there is frequency range of eight fifty megahertz and nineteen megahertz is used
Parts of GSM
- The main parts of GSM are explained here one by one with the details.
- It further consists of some parts that are explained here.
- Subscriber Identity Module (SIM):
- It is a removable smart card configuration that consists of customers’ subscription data and phonebooks. When a mobile phone is on it retains the info of users.
- It allocated with 4 digit number that called pin number to get distinction from other sims.
- Mobile equipment or (ME):
- There are numerous categories of terminals that are categorized according to power users and practical applications.
- One is a fixed terminal that is positioned in automobiles and its output power value is twenty watts.
- The second one is portable terminals also have the ability to position in the cars and the power configured is eight watts.
What is Base Station Subsystem or (BSS):
- BSS or base station subsystem is a combination of BSC and BTS. It used to make configurations among the ME and NSS.
- It can say the hed or controller of transmission and reception of signals. There is 2 main portion of BSS Huawei incorporated BSS comprises of BSC, PCU TCSM, and BTS.
What is Base Station Controller (BSC):
- This part is used to control the different groups of BTS and regulate the radio sources of BTS. It can say that head of hands-off frequency hopping exchange functions and power control for every BTS.
What is Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station:
- It is a combination of transceivers and antennas that employed in every cell of the system. it is generally positioned in the midpoint of the cell.
- The transmitting power of BTS explains the area or size cell. According to a number of users in the cell there is one to sixteen transceivers used in BTS.
- The main parts of BTS are explained here.
- Power amplifier
- COntrol function
- Alarm extension network
What is NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)
- The main parts of NSS are explained here.
- Authentication center
- Equipment Identity Register
What is Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) :
- This system is linked to the NSS and BSC. for controlling and monitoring of GSM network.
- It called head of controlling the traffic existing at BSS. Here point keep in mind that if subscriber users increases then the BS number rises.
Mobile network Interfaces
- ABIS INTERFACE:
- The interfacing among the BTS and BSC that is part of GSM is called ABIS interface.
- There is sixteen kilobytes slot is used for this interfacing.
- ATER INTERFACE
- This interfacing joins the BSC with MSC.
- E- INTERFACE:
- The interfacing between two MSCs called e interface.
POWER SUPPLY Configuration at Site
- The power supply arrangement for the site can be seen in below figure.
- Generator Check:
- Alarm Check:
What is SYSTEM OUTAGE
- It is the time taken by the site is down or offline called system outage. It is generally the outcome of fault occurrence.
- It normally caused due to power loss or fault in a generator.
What is SYSTEM COMMISSIONING
- It is normally testing adjustment and balancing of site. In this portion, site is operated commercially. An expert person does this work.
- In this network, there is an arrangement of hardware and software used at the site and links the BSC to run the first time.
INTRODUCTION TO CDMA
- Its full form is code division multiple access the digital cellular technique which operates spread spectrum method
- Contrary to other networks like GSM that operate TDAM CDMA not operates for a certain frequency for every user.
- In place, each channel runs a complete existing spectrum of frequency. Single conversation is encoded having a pseudo-random digital sequence.
- The CDMA regularly offers a good range for voice and data transmission unlike to other techniques used for mobiles.
TRANSMISSION through MICROWAVE:
- In this technique, there is data transmission occurs through the use of a microwave.
- As microwaves are highly disturbed by the resistance offered by the weather during wet so it used for limited areas.
- It is applicable for single-line sending of data and offers good bandwidth.
- It not preferred for areas where some objects exists between the transmitter and receivers.
- It disturbed by the rain-snow cloudy weather fog etc.
- It is used in the cellular system used to make data transmission between BTS and BSC and BSC and MSC
- The communication with satellite is done through it.
- It also makes the link between TV and telephone service offered
- Communication through microwaves done through these elements.
- Indoor Unit.
- Outdoor Unit.
- I.F cable
- Digital Distribution Frame(DDF)
- There are numerous categories of this system like 1+1, 1+0, STM, STM1 or XPIC.
- Generally used X PIC at BSC since it minimizes the effect off interference and cross-polarization. Other category used at BTS
Out Door Unit
- Its structure is like a rectangle positioned like a dish placed at the upper portion of the tower.
- It used to send and receive microwaves signal coming from BTS
INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY(I.F) CABLE
- This cable used to make connections between the IDU and our door units. and frequency values are four to twenty-two gaga hertz
- The insertion power loss for this cable is 2.5 decibel.
- The temperature range for this is twenty to thirty degrees.
- It links at the front side of the outdoor unit generally used to spread trans receiver signals.
So friends that is detailed about Mobile Network i have covered the basis of this system with the detailed. If you have any further query ask in the comments. Thanks for reading have a nice day.
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