Hi friends welcome to the new post. Here we will learn LM324 – Single Supply Quad Operational Amplifiers worksheet. The LM324 comes with 4 high-gain operational amplifiers that are not dependent on each other and have frequency compensation at inner bases. All these operational functions with the use of one power supply on different values of voltage.
They can also operate with more than one supply and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power source. So let’s get started with Introduction to LM324
Introduction to LM324
- The LM324 are low-cost, quad-operational amplifier that has true differential inputs. They come with different benefits than standard operational amplifiers used in single-supply projects. Quad amplifier can fcntions at the value of volts from three volts or thirty-two volts with 1/5 quiescent current related to MC1741 (on a per-amplifier basis).
- Common mode input values come with a negative supply, removing the need of an outer biasing component in a circuit. Output volts also come with a negative power supply voltage
Features of LM324
- It comes with shirt circuit protection circuits
- It has a true differential input stage circuit
- its working volts are from three to thirty-two volts
- Its input bias current is low about 100 nA Maximum
- 4 amplifiers per packaging configured on it
- It is compensated at the inner base
- Its common mode range extended to the negative supply
- It comes with industrial standard pins
- ESD clamps on its input increase Ruggedness while saving the operation of the device
- There is a need for unique Site and control change features for automotive applications
Read our latest post on: Integrated Circuits (ICs) definition, Working
The LM324 series has discussed comes with four internally compensated 2 stage operational amplifiers. The first stage of each has different input devices Q20 and Q8 with input buffer transistors Q21 and Q17 and differential to single-ended converter Q3 and Q4. The first stage did not work the first stage gain function but also operated the level shifting and transconductance decrement operation. like to read Introduction to LM358, Working, Pinout & Applications
With reducing transconductance small compensation capacitor can be used that saves the area of the chip. Transconductance reduction is done by splitting collectors of Q20 and Q18. Another parameter of this input stage is that input common mode is added to negative supply or ground, in a single supply function without saturating input devices or differential to a single-ended converter. the second stage comes with a standard current source load amplifier stage
Increase output current of LM324
If there is a low current output of the operational amplifier that not be used for any output circuit. The below-shown circuit can be made to increase the output current operational amplifier. The current of the LM324 operational amplifier can be made to eighty-five milliampere
The current operational amplifier output current is about 20 to 40mA.
|It is the output of the first comparator
|The input of the first comparator Inverting
|It is the first comparator Non-inverting input pin
|Positive supply provided here
|It is non inverting input pin of the second comparator
|The second comparator of Inverting input
|The second comparator output pin
|The third comparator output
|The third comparator inverting input
|Non-inverting input pinout of third comparator
|Fourth comparator non-inverting input
|Fourth comparator inverting input
|Output pin of 4th comparator
LM324 IC Ratings
|Input voltage range
|-0.3 V to 32 Volts
|Differential input voltage
|Storage temperature range
|-65°C to 150 centigrade
|3 V to 32 volts
|DC voltage gain
|Output voltage swing
|0 V to V+ – 1.5 V
LM324 Vs LM358
|Number of op-amps
|Power supply voltage
|3V to 32V
|3V to 32V
|Input offset voltage
|20µV/°C maximum value
|30µV/°C maximum value
|0.7V/µs minimum value
|0.3V/µs minimum value
|600mW maximum value
|300mW maximum value
What is the power supply range of LM324?
For Single Supply 3 V to 32 V. or Dual Supplies volts of LM324 are ±1.5 V to ±16 V
What is the maximum output current of LM324?
40mA per channel and sink up to 20mA.
What is the minimum voltage for LM324?
3 volts is its minimum voltage
Is LM324 op-amp?
it is a quad-operational amplifier with true differential inputs.
What is the working principle of LM324?
There are current flows due to the input signal given to the non-inverting pin.If the non-inverting input is less value then the inverting volts value of the operational amplifier output volts is zero
Why is LM324 used?
Its main applications are
- LM324 Inverting AC Amplifier Circuit
- LM324 Non-inverting AC Amplifier Circuit
- LM324 AC Signal Three Distribution Amplifier Circuit
- LM324 Active Bandpass Filter Circuit
- LM324 Temperature Measurement Circuit
Is LM324 good for audio?
It is not good for audio applications since it gets a high value of crossover distortion tha can be seen at a sixty-hertz frequency
What IC is LM324?
LM324 is a fourteen pinout integrated circuit that has 4 independent operational amplifiers configured in a single layout
What is the difference between LM324 and LM224?
The LM224 operating temperature is –25°C to 85°C. The LM324 operated from 0°C to 70°C.