Hello, readers welcome to the new post. Today we will discuss Introduction to Integrated Circuits (ICs). Integrated circuits are electronic components that are used for different electronic projects and devices. In these Ics transistors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, and some other components are connected through wiring through the use of different processes and after that positioned on smaller semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates. After that complete configuration is assembled in the packaging, create the microstructure with complete circuit operations. The commonly used Integrated circuits are memory boards, RF/IF, and RFID modules.
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Introduction to Integrated Circuits (ICs)
- The integrated circuits or monolithic ICs known as microchips are a group of electronic circuits in a single packaging of semiconductors material normally silicon used for packaging material.
- Different types of small MOSFETs are configured on the small-size board. That causes circuits that have a small size, high-speed operation, and are less costly than other components.
- The high volume production of ICs, their reliability, capability, and build block configuration to integrated circuit design make sure the high-speed implementation of standard IC instead the creation of distinct transistors.
- Almost in any device or project, IC is used and gives new life to electronics, computers, mobile phones, and other home appliances industry.
- Through the use of ICs, it is possible to create small-size components like computer processors and controllers.
- The one unit of integrated component consists of thousands or millions of diodes, capacitors, resistors, and transistors.
- With that, some additional components are also configured on the circuit and complicate the web of semiconductors wafers, silicon copper, and other material used.
- The configured in the casing of ICs has a small size like microscopic size structure they have
Integrated Circuits History
- The creation of the transistor in 1947 made a revolution in the computer industry. The transistor is a combination of transfer and resistor.
- At the starting time transistor comes in distinct packing and every circuit comprises distinct transistors, capacitors, and resistors.
- Due to the larger size of components starting, ICs were not easy to configure on the board.
- With the passage of time creation of solid-state electronics helped to reduce the size of the components.
- In the 1950s Jack Kilby of Texas Instrument and Robert Noyce of Fairchild semiconductor corporation find a path that reduces the size of the device that had functioned as wire.
- Their results help to the creation of modern integrated circuits
ICs (Integrated Circuits) Classification
- Classification of different types of integrated on the basis of their board size is given here
- SSI: it stands for small-scale integration that has three to thirty gates per chip
- MSI: Stands for medium-scale integration that has thirty to three hundred gates per chip
- LSI: Stands for large-scale integration that has three to three thousand gates per chip.
- VLSI: stands for very large-scale integration have more than three thousand gates on one chip
Types of ICs (Integrated Circuits)
- There are three types of ICs that are described here
- Hybrid IC
- Monolithic ICs
- Thin and thick film ICs
Thin and Thick ICs
- In this type of Ics passive components like resistors, and capacitors are configured with that diodes, and transistors are attached separately to make one unit and complete circuitry. These ICs are created through a combination of integrated and distinct components
- Thick and thin ICs come with the same features and structure with different techniques of film deposition.
- The technique of film deposition differentiates the thin and thick ics.
- There is a film of conducting material used on the glass surfaces for thin file IC creation.
- By changing the thickness of films deposited on material with different resistivity, passive electronic components such as resistors and capacitors are created.
- For the thick film, the ICs silk printing method is used to make the required structure of circuitry on a ceramic substrate. Thick film Ics are called printed thin film
- The monolithic ICs the separate element active and passive and their connections are created on the silicon board.
- The word monolithic is derived from Two Greek words mono and Lithos that has meanings of one and stone.
- That means it has a circuit on one chip. These types of IC are commonly used. They are easy to use and less expensive.
- these ICs are used as amplifiers, voltage regulators, and computers
- It has a drawback in that there is improper insulation used between the components. It also has low power ratings
- These Ics called multi-ICs that come with more than one chip in connection. The active component configured on these ICs are diffused transistors or diodes
- While passive components are diffused capacitors or resistors on one board
- These ICs operate on the digital system values zero and one. In a simple way, they have on and OFF states.
- Microprocessors and microcontrollers are belongs to this IC system that has numerous flip-flops and logic gates
- This IC uses a continuous signal for an operation that is an analog signal. 555 timers and sensors are examples of these ICs. These IC used in amplifier, filter, and modulation, and demodulation circuits
Advantages of Integrate Circuit or IC
- The main benefits of ICs are explained here
- These components can be removed from the main board if damaged and easily changed
- These are high-speed devices
- The prices of these modules are low
- They are reliable components
- Small size components
- Used for complex structures and enhances their operations
Disadvantages of Integrate Circuit or IC
- They are smaller in size and do not dissipate heat when a high current passes. So not used for high current applications
- These components are not used for inductors and transformer
Integrated Circuits Limitations
- These components cannot handle high power
- These resistors and capacitors depend on the voltage so not used for such projects
- They cause noise during working
- They need less voltage to operate
- They have restricted power ratings
That is all about the Integrated Circuits (ICs) all details has explained. If you have any questions ask here