Hi, readers welcome to the new post. In today’s tutorial, we will have a detailed look at Introduction to 8051 Microcontroller. The first time this microcontroller was created by the Intel in 1980. Its structure is based on the Harvard Architecture and created to employed in the embedded system. Firstly it was manufactured with the use of the NMOS technique but this technique was expensive uses a lot of power so Intel replaced this technique with the CMOS and created a new version that has letter C for difference than the previous controller and written as 80C51.
So the controller which are currently created and used in different engineering simulation used less power due to creation through the CMOS technique. There are 2 types of Buses used in this module first is for program and second for data transmission. So it consists of 2 storing spaces used for to store program and data of sixty four-kilo bytes. In today’s post, we will have a detailed look at its working, operation, pinouts, and some other related factors. So let’s get started with Introduction to 8051 Microcontroller.
Introduction to 8051 Microcontroller
- The 8051 Microcontroller is Ic which incorporated with forty pinouts has a central processing unit with other devices such as random access memory, read-only memory.
- The space of ROM used in this module is four kilobytes and space of ROM is one twenty byte with that it has two sixteen-bit timers,
- There are four parallel eight bits port exits in this device which can be programmed according to the requirement of the project.
- The crystal oscillator is assembled on this board having a frequency of twelve megahertz.
- Like other controllers, these modules are not created through the NMOS technique but constructed with the CMOS.
- The common packaging in which it exits is DIP, forty-four lead TQFP, forty-four lead PLCC.
Pinout of 8051 Microcontroller
- These are forty pinouts of 8051 Microcontroller which are discussed here.
- it is denoted as Vcc and plus five volts are given to this pinout.
Pinouts 32 to 39
- these pinouts are belonged to Port zero and operate as input and output pinouts.
- This pinout is used to enable or disable the exterior memory interfacing.
- it is ALE or aka address latch enables pinout which used to demultiplex the address-data signal at port zero.
- It is PSEN pinout which used to reading of signal from the exterior memory unit.
Pinout 21 to 28
- This group of pinout is belonged to port 2 and used as input and output.
- It is Vss and used for the ground connection.
- Through these 2 pins, the exterior clock is given to the module.
Pinout 10 to 17
- This group of pinout belongs to port 3.
- It is reset pinout
Pinout 1 to 8
- These pinouts are belonged to the port one and operate as input and output pins.
8051 Microcontroller Architecture
- In the below figure inner structure of 8051 is shown let’s discuss it with the detailed.
- The central processing unit is the brain of the controller. All tasks performed by the controller is managed through this part. OVer operation of CPU, there is no influence of the user. The interpretation of the information store in the read-only memory is done through this part and execute the specified operation.
- All types of registers used in the controller are controlled by the CPU.
- In some cases, we need to stop the continued process and execute the coming process for these interrupts are used.
- There are 5 types of interrupts used in the structure of the 8051 controllers which are INT0, TF0, INT1, TF1, R1/T1.
- These interrupts creat some time interval in the execution of the main program. TF0 and TF1 are timers interrupts and INT0 and INT1 are exterior interrupts. While R1/T1 is a serial port interrupt.
- Above we discussed that CPU used to the execution of different commands. To store these commands memory is used. there are 2 types of memory units used in controller Random access memory and read-only memory.
- The storing space of read-only memory is four-kilo byte and the storage of random access memory is one twenty bytes.
- The instruction stored in the ROM is called code. ROM is non-volatile memory it stores data for large time intervals when power applied is off.
- Random-access memory is a volatile memory it retains data for small-time and it needed a regular power supply for data storage.
- For serial communication in the 8051 controllers UART port is used. It operates in 2 ways can send and receive data.
- There are 3 pinout exits in the serial port transmitter, receiver, and ground.
- Buses are used for transmission of data from one part of the controller to another. There are 2 buses used in this module first is a data bus which is eight-bit and address bus which is sixteen-bit.
- The address bus size explains the memory addressed by the controller.
- There are four addressing mode exits in the address bus which are immediate, direct, register, and register indirect addressing mode.
- The data bus transfers data between the microprocessor and input-output memory devices. it operates in 2 modes and can send and receive data.
- The width of the data bus can be determined by the structure of the central processing unit.
- There are four input and output port exits in the controller which are P0, P1, P2, and P3. Through these ports, we can connect external devices with the controller.
- In every port eight pins exits. After resetting these pinouts can be used as an output port.
- There are 2 sixteen bit timers exits in this module. The timer counts the inner signal of certain instruction and counter count the exterior signal given by the device link with the controller.
Applications of 8051 Microcontroller
- These are some important applications of 8051 microcontrollers.
- It used in different types of industrial projects.
- To control the different processes it used.
- It also exits in different electronic devices such as Tv, VCR, video games.
- It security circuits and Automattic operating devices.
- It used in different temperature detection devices.
- The parking indicator comprises this module.
- In a fire detector, this module is used.
- Speed control of dc motor can be done with this device.
That is a detailed post about 8051 microcontrollers if you have any queries ask in comments. Thanks for reading. have a good day.