Hello, friends welcome to the new post. In this post, we will have a detailed look at the **Equivalent Circuit Of A Transformer. The transformer** is an electrical instrument that used to vary the level of voltage given at the input and shown at output according to the configuration used either step up or step down.

Here we discuss its circuit configuration to see the practical working of the transformer and its related parameters. So let get started with Equivalent Circuit Of A Transformer

### Equivalent Circuit Of A Transformer

- The losses which exist in the practical transformer should be discussed to see the practical understanding of transformer circuitry.
- The main factors that should be considered are mention here.

- Copper losses are caused due to the losses across the primary and secondary windings of the transformer. They are proportionate to the square of current passing in the coils at primary and secondary sides.
- Eddy’s current losses exist in the core of the transformer. Are proportionate relation to the square of voltage given at the transformer.
- The third factor is hysteresis loss is related to the configuration of magnetic domains in the core through half part of signal.
- Leakage flux is the fourth factor that moves ours from the core and windings. Due to this flux self-inductance generated in the primary and secondary windings and in the circuitry this inductance is considered.

**Exact Equivalent Circuit of a Real Transformer**

- It is certain to make equivalent circuitry which considered in all main parameters of the transformer.
- Every inadequacy of the model is take into consideration and their outcomes are added in the transformer structure.
- The simples factor in the circuitry is copper losses that are resistance losses in both windings or transformer
- To design this loss resistance Rp is in primary circuitry of transformer is posited and resistance Rs at secondary circuitry.
- Due to leakage flux at primary windings voltage is induced.

**as**the most part of leakage flux is passing through the air and as the reluctance air is constant and has large value than the reluctance of core the flux has a direct relation to the primary circuitry current Ip and flux of sedentary is in direct relation to the secondary current.

**in the**above equation, Lp is self-inductance of the primary side and Ls is the self-inductance of the secondary side. So the leakage flux now created through primary and secondary winding inductances.**How to construct core excitation factor:**- The magnetization current Im is current that is proportionate to the voltage given to the core and lags the given voltage through ninety degrees therefore it can be constructed through the reactance XM linked about the primary voltage supply.
- The core losses current Ih+e is current proportionate to the voltage given to the core which is in phase to the voltage given therefore it can be constructed through resistance Rc linked to the primary voltage supply.
**The**resultant equivalent circuitry of the transformer can seen here.

- Note that components creating the excitation branch are posited in the primary resistance Rp and primary inductance Lp.
- It is due to the voltage given to the core is equal to the input voltage less than the inner voltage losses at the windings.
- Though circuitry in the above figure is the correct circuit of transformer it is not good to use.
- For practical understanding, the circuitry comprises a transformer that is generally compulsory to transform the complete circuitry in equivalent circuitry having one voltage level
- So equivalent circuitry should be referred to the primary side or secondary side in a solution of mathematical problems.
- The below diagram equivalent circuitry of transformer referred to the primary side and in figure shown denoted as b the equivalent circuitry referred to the secondary side.

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**Approximate Equivalent Circuits of Transformer**

- The transformer circuitry shown above is complicated to obtain accurate results in different applications.
- The main issue is that the excitation branch of the circuitry is added to another node of circuitry that is under study
- The excitation branch is like a small current than the load current of the transformer.
- In real it is less than in normal situations it results totally ignored voltage losses Rp and Xp.
- Since it is accurate the basic circuitry can be generated that functioned like normal circuitry.
- The excitation brach is just moving to the front side of the transformer and primary and secondary impedances are in series combination.
- This impedance are added making the circuitry of the transformer as shown below.

**In certain**applications, the excitation brach can be ignored completely without giving serious results**In**this condition the equivalent circuitry of the transformer now becomes

**How to Determine Values of Components Transformer Circuit**

**It**is certain to finds the values of inductance and resistance in the circuitry of the transformer.- The adequate simplification of these parameters can get through 2 tests open circuit and short circuit test.
**In the**open circuitry test transformer secondary side is open and the primary is linked to the full rated voltage.**See the**circuit in the below figure.

- In these conditions, the input current should be passing in the excitation branch of the transformer.
- The series components Rp and Xp are very less than the Rc and Xm to effect sufficient voltage loss therefore all input voltage is lost about the excitation branch.
**The**open circuitry test points can sen her.

- Full rated voltage is given to the primary side of the transformer and input voltage input current and input power at the transform are find.
- Through this data, it is certain to finds the P.F of input current and so both magnitude and angle of excitation impedance.
- The simple method to find the parameters of Rc and Cm is to see the ist to the admittance of the excitation branch.
- The conductance of core losses is mentored here,

**The**P.f is lag in the case of real transformer therefore the angle of current lags the angle of voltage by some angle.- The admittance is given here

**Short Circuit Test**

**In this**test secondary points of the transformer are short-circuited and primary points are linked to the less voltage supply.

**The**input voltage is set to the current is short-circuited and windings is similar to the rated value.- 1he input voltage, current, and power are again found