Hello, readers welcome to the new post. Today we will discuss Difference between Vacuum tubes and transistors. These two are electronic components that used switches in circuits. It is normally used as a switch in the power supply, computer and communication system. But there are different from each other on the basis of their structure and operation
The basic difference between them is vacuum tubes are used to amplify sound or electrical signal while transistors are a new technology that has replaced the vacuum tubes and provides an efficient process and small size. In this post, we will cover different points to discuss the difference between these components. So let get started
What is a Vacuum Tube?
- The vacuum tube is an electronic component that controls the current flow through the use of a vacuum in a sealed glass tube.
- it is an older version of transistors that are now commonly used in electronics.
- The basic example of the vacuum tube is a cathode ray tube that is used in older TVs and computer monitors. It was created by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904 that was used in electronic devices at that time.
- There are two electrodes it has called the anode and cathode that are configured in a sealed glass tube that is no air.
- The cathode generates electrons and the anode gets electronics when voltage is given to this tube.
- It uses high power since it has a heating element that generates electrons and that heating element makes the vacuum tube bulky.
- These tubes become common for electronic devices for ist half of twenty century. they were the main part of TV, radio, radar telephones system, and computer
What is Transistor
- A transistor is an electronic component that is used as an amplifier and switch in electronic devices. It is the main part of the currently used electronic system
- There are three pins transistor has an emitter-base and collectors
- Different types of transistors are used in circuits on the basis of circuit demands and their design
- The main types are NPN and PNP transistors and some others are MOSFET or Fet
- It was invented by Walter Brattain and William Shockley in 1947
- The normal transistor has three layers which are NPN and PNP on the basis of doping.
- If it doped with group three elements of the periodic table it has PNP configuration since has holes as majority carriers and for NPN configuration it has electrons as majority carriers since doped with group five elements.
- It is the main part of computers, power supply regulators and some other devices
Difference between Vacuum Tube and Transistor
- Some differences between transistors and vacuum tubes are denoted here
- The transistor is a three-terminal device used as a switch and amplifier while a vacuum tube is a device that has a sealed glass tube to control the current in that tube.
- Transistor has electrons and holes that charge carriers while a vacuum tube has electrons that only charge carriers
- The structure of the transistor is such that it has three layers of NPN or PNP and two PN junctions. While a vacuum tube has a cathode anode air-tight glass tube
- The current flow in the transistor from emitter to collector due to charger carrier direction and in the vacuum tube current flow from the cathode to the anode
- The working principle of the vacuum tube is thermionic emission and a transistor work on the principle of solid-state physics
- The transistor is a small size device so uses less power than a vacuum tube is a large size
- Power losses in the transistor is less than vacuum tube
- The size of the transistor is larger the tube
- Circuit created through transistor can be a move to another place then vacuum tube
- The operating volts of the transistor is less than the vacuum tube
- The mechanical strength of a transistor is high than tube
- The efficiency of transistors is high than tube
- The voltage gain of a transistor is high
- Transistors have low input impedance
- Change in temperature has a high effect on the transistor than tube
- For small signal, transistors is used in the tube
- The operating life of a transistor is long than vacuum tube
- Transistors used in ICs
|Large and heavy
|Small and lightweight
|High power consumption
|Low power consumption
|Generate heat and require cooling
|Generate less heat
|Can be unreliable and have a shorter lifespan
|More reliable and have a longer lifespan
|Tend to produce more noise
|Produce less noise
|Require more maintenance
|Require less maintenance
Transistor Advantages over Vacuum Tube
- The transistor not have a cathode heater, power consumption reduction circuitry, and cathode poisoning
- Its size is small and less weight.
- In one transistor larger number of small-size transistors can be configured
- It works in small voltage-like battery having one cell can be used to operate it
- It makes highly energy-efficient projects
- Additional devices are available providing design flexibility by having circuits with complementary symmetry not possible with tubes.
- Less sensitive to mechanical shocks and vibrations with physical resistance and practically eliminates disturbing signals caused by shocks like microphones in audio applications.
- It is not prone to glass packaging breakage, leakage, gas leakage and other physical damage
- Transistors have some limitations that is listed here
- Transistors lack the higher electron mobility that vacuum tubes have, which is good for high-power, a high-frequency operation such as that used in some wireless TV transmitters and in the traveling-wave tubes used as amplifiers in some satellites
- Transistors and some other solid-state components have a chance to get damaged through small electric and thermal effects like electrostatic charges while Vacuum tubes have good resistance to electrical effects
- Transistors are sensitive to cosmic and radiation
- In audio circuits, transistors lack the lower harmonic distortion of the so-called tube sound—that is a feature of tubes and used by some applications
That is all about the Difference between Vacuum Tube and transistors all details has explained. If you have any query ask here